The main characteristics of the labor market are employment, unemployment and economic activity of the population.
Following the results of 2016, work-force size in the RF was 76 636,1 th people and 72 392,6 th people were employed. Economic activity reached 69,5% at the level of employment of 65,7%. At the same time, volume of unemployment was 5,5%. Data for previous years are presented in the table 1.
|Total population as of December 31, th people||143 056,4||143 347,1||143 666,9||146 267,3||146 544,7||146 804,4|
|Work-force size, th people||75 779,0||75 676,1||75 528,9||75 428,4||76 587,5||76 636,1|
|Number of employed, th people||70 856,6||71 545,4||71 391,5||71 539,0||72 323,6||72 392,6|
|Number of unemployed, th people||4 922,4||4 130,7||4 137,4||3 889,4||4 263,9||4 243,5|
|Labour force participation rate, %||68,3||68,7||68,5||68,9||69,1||69,5|
|Employment rate, %||63,9||64,9||64,8||65,3||65,3||65,7|
|Unemployment rate, %||6,5||5,5||5,5||5,2||5,6||5,5|
Among the trends on the labor market in 2016 are: reduction of job hunting requests at increase of searching period; demand for office-seekers with experience at difficulties in finding a good specialist; growth of importance of a specific employee on the background of reduction of downsizing. Contrary to specialists of transport, logistics and IT markets, insurance agents, loan officers and bank operators are in the risk zone. The number of vacancies in human resource management and trainings has increased.
According to the analysis of the situation on the labor market, it is under transformation. Employers are searching for qualified stuff that is why companies have changed their approach to recruitment and personnel reserve. As a result, the nowadays trend is about constant assessment of working stuff, training, using specialist’s (department’s) coefficient of performance, etc. Step by step these processes become more significant, requiring skills, higher involvement and constant development. Analysts expect the transformation will be finished in 2018.
Nevertheless, this argument is hardly to be agreed with, taking into account the impact factors forming on the labor market. The experts combined them in three groups. The first one is connected with opportunities of digital technologies:
- types of work currently being performed by a man and that can be performed by robots, artificial intelligence, automated systems and similar are increasing;
- digital technologies facilitate access to a wide range of business information;
- increase in use of Big Data (processing and analysis of large amounts of data, including poorly structured) and in-depth analytics, which are vital to business.
The second group covers own changes in business:
- processes of activity become more complicated with increase in stuff and number of business units;
- this is resulted in difficulties with planning, management, estimation of labor efficiency of each employee; all these affect the company’s productivity;
- implementation of innovations will serve to creation of more flexible management structures, growth of their mobility and extension of fields for experiments.
Changes of offers on the labor market are characterized by the third group of factors: change of population; deficit of certain skills; geopolitical and economical changes in distribution of power and incomes; predominant of heterogeneous workgroups; growth of individualism and ambitions for going into business on their own.
The trend among employers to seek for qualified specialists with the accent on working experience becomes clear. The reduction of offers for low-qualified personnel by 5% every year is expected since 2018. At forming trends and existing approaches to professional training the total level of real unemployment in Russia could reach 20-25% by the year 2022.
According to the Federal Law as of 24.06.1998 №89-FL (edited 28.12.2016) «On Wastes of Production and Consumption » and the Federal Law as of 29.12.2015 №404-FL «On Amendments to the Federal Law «On Environmental Protection» and certain legislative acts of the RF», since April 15, 2017 manufacturers and importers of goods utilized after consumer performance loss are obliged to pay an environmental fee.
The list of finished goods (including packing) utilized after consumer performance loss is approved by the Order of the Government of the RF as of 24.09.2015 № 1886-r (edited 19.01.2017). The list includes:
- accumulators and accumulator batteries;
- barrels and similar metallic containers, metallic package;
- paper and paper products , paper stationery, corrugated carton, paper and carton package;
- consumer electronics;
- household nonelectric appliances;
- outwear, workwear and underwear;
- wooden building goods and joinery, wooden package;
- carpets, carpet and textile products;
- computers, peripheral and communication equipment;
- vehicles and general purpose equipment;
- oil products;
- optical instruments and photographic equipment;
- printed newspapers;
- plastic packaging and building products;
- power-operated hand tools;
- flat bent and worked glass, glass bottles and flacons, other hollow glasswork;
- refrigerator and ventilation industrial equipment;
- household, sanitary and toilet goods and appliances;
- tires, scrap tires, rubber bags and other rubber products;
- electrical lighting and household equipment and appliances.
The environmental fee is classified by the Federal Law as non-tax revenues of the federal budget and, according to the Decision of the Government of the RF, is administered by the Federal Service for Supervision of Natural Resource Usage (Rosprirodnadzor).
The environmental fee for packed goods that are not ready to use is paid only for package, and the fee is not paid for goods utilized and exported from Russia.
The environmental fee rate is based on average expenses for collection, transportation, processing and utilization of products lost consumer performance. Unit costs for infrastructure development for that purpose also can be included into the environmental fee rate.
The environmental fee rates are established by the Decision of the Government of Russia.
The amount of an environmental fee is calculated by multiplying of the environmental fee rate by mass or quantity of finished goods subjected to utilization on the territory of the RF, or by mass of package used for production of this good, and by utilization standard expressed in relative units. If manufacturers or importers, that utilize waste by themselves, fail to achieve these standards, there is payment of an environmental fee calculated as multiplying of the environmental fee rate by the difference between established and real values of the utilized waste quantity.
The Federal Law admits waste utilization both independently and based on contract with a correspondent special-purpose authorized enterprise. For that purpose making manufacturers or importers union is also possible.
In practice, the amount of fee is defined on the basis of confirmed report forms. Manufacturers and importers are obliged to send the declaration indicating quantity of produced or imported goods and package for the year following the accounting period and the report on quantity of utilized waste to the Rosprirodnadzor to the 1st of April.
It is necessary to calculate and pay an environmental fee to April, 15.